Category Archives: Recordkeeping

GETTING AROUND IN THE NEW QUICKBOOKS ONLINE VERSION

Here are four quick tips on finding your way around the new QuickBooks.

 1. Click Create (+) at the top of the page to enter pretty much any transaction — including invoices, sales receipts, expenses, and bank deposits. Click the “Show more” link to see the full list.

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2. The settings gear in the upper right corner includes Reconcile, Chart of Accounts, Recurring Transactions, and Products and Services, as well as your QuickBooks subscription details.

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3. The navigation bar on the left side of the page is your gateway to all features — including your income list under Transactions > Sales.

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4. The gear icon above a table lets you customize how the table looks.

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QUICKBOOKS REPORTS THAT YOUR BUSINESS SHOULD RUN REGULARLY

qbgraphYou send invoices because you sold products and/or services. Purchase orders go out when you’re running low on inventory, and there are always bills to pay, it seems like. All of this activity is, of course, important in itself, but all of your conscientious bookkeeping culminates in what’s probably the most critical element of QuickBooks: your reports.

Reports can tell you how many navy blue sweatshirts you sold in March, what you paid for health insurance premiums in the first quarter, and how much you bought from your favorite vendor last month. They’re very good at drilling down to get the precise set of numbers you need.

But carefully customized and properly analyzed reports can do more than tell you how many golf clubs to order and when it’s time to switch phone services. They can help you make the business decisions that will help you take your growing company to the next level. There are several that you should be looking at regularly, some of which you can interpret easily and use in your daily workflow. We’ll help you with the interpretation of the more complex financial reports.

Who Owes Money?

That’s probably a question you ask yourself every day. You don’t necessarily have to run the A/R Aging Detail report every day, but you’ll want to run it frequently. It tells you who owes you money and whether they’ve missed the due date (and by how many days).


Figure 1: By running the A/R Aging Detail report, you can see whether you need to follow up with customers who have past due invoices. 

As with any report, you can modify it to include the columns, data set and date range you want by clicking the Customizebutton. When you create a report in a format that you think you might want to run again, click the Memorize button. Enter a name that you’ll remember, and assign it to a Memorized Report Group.

Getting There

There are two ways to find the reports you want to see. You can open the Reports menu and move your cursor down to the category you want, like Customers & Receivables, which will open a slide-out menu of options there.

Or you can open the Report Center, which lets you explore reports in more depth. Each is represented by a small graphic with four icons under it. You can:

  • Run the report with your own data in it
  • Open a small informational window
  • Designate it as a Favorite, and
  • View QuickBooks help.


Figure 2: If you access QuickBooks reports through the Report Center, you’ll have several related options. 

Other accounts receivable reports that you should consult periodically include Open Invoices and Average Days to Pay.

Tracking What You Owe

Reports can also keep you up-to-date on money that you owe to other people and companies. An important one is Unpaid Bills Detail, accessible through the Vendors & Payables menu item. Though you can modify its columns, this report basically tells you who is expecting money from you, the date the bill was issued and its due date, any number assigned to it, the balance due, and relevant aging information.

Vendor Balance Detail is critical, too. This report displays every transaction (invoices, payments, etc.) that contribute to the balance you have with each vendor.

Standard Financial Reports


Figure 3: We hope you’ll let us help you by running and interpreting these standard financial reports. 

QuickBooks report categories include one labeled Company & Financial. These are reports that you can run yourself, but they’re critical for understanding your company’s financial status. We can customize and analyze these for you on a regular basis so you’ll know where you stand. They include:

  • Balance Sheet. What is the value of your company? The balance sheet breaks out this information by account (under the umbrella of assets, liabilities and equity).
  • Income Statement. Often referred to as Profit & Loss, this shows you how much money your business made or lost over a specific time period.
  • Statement of Cash Flows. How much money came in and went out during a specified time range?

Reports can only generate information about what you’ve entered in QuickBooks and exactly where it’s been entered. So it’s crucial that you follow standard accounting practice as you proceed through your daily workflow. As a CPA and Advanced QuickBooks ProAdvisor, I’m available to answer questions that you have about entering your information in QuickBooks and getting the reports that you need to make wise financial decisions. The future success of your business depends upon it.

STARTING A NEW BUSINESS? THREE THINGS THAT YOU MUST KNOW

newbusinessStarting a new business is a very exciting and busy time. There is so much to be done and so little time to do it in. If you expect to have employees, there are a variety of Federal and state forms and applications that will need to be completed to get your business up and running. Here are three things that every new business owner should know. We can help you with all of these.

1. Employer Identification Number (EIN) 
Securing an Employer Identification Number (also known as a Federal Tax Identification Number) is the first thing that needs to be done, since many other forms require it. EINs are issued by the IRS to employers, sole proprietors, corporations, partnerships, nonprofit associations, trusts, estates, government agencies, certain individuals, and other business entities for tax filing and reporting purposes.

The fastest way to apply for an EIN is online through the IRS website or by telephone. Applying by fax and mail generally takes one to two weeks. Please note that as of May 21, 2012 you can only apply for one EIN per day. The previous limit was 5.

2. State Withholding, Unemployment, and Sales Tax
Once you have your EIN, you need to fill out forms to establish an account with the State for payroll tax withholding, Unemployment Insurance Registration, and sales tax collections (if applicable).

3. Payroll Recordkeeping
Payroll reporting and record keeping can be very time consuming and costly, especially if it isn’t handled correctly. Also keep in mind, that almost all employers are required to transmit federal payroll tax deposits electronically. Personnel files should be kept for each employee and include an employee’s employment application as well as the following:

Form W-4 is completed by the employee and used to calculate their Federal income tax withholding. This form also includes necessary information such as address and social security number.

Form I-9 must be completed by you, the employer, to verify that employees are legally permitted to work in the U.S.

If you need help setting up the paperwork for your business, please call our office today at (727) 391-7373.  We can handle this part of your business so you can focus on running your business.

 

ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS THAT EVERY BUSINESS OWNER SHOULD KNOW

confusedYou may have just opened your business, but your business is D.O.A. without an understanding of accounting and recordkeeping requirements. Here’s a primer of twenty accounting concepts that every business owner must know: 

#1: Account Types

There are six Account types that are used in every business:

Asset – An item that your company owns.  Current Assets include those items that can be converted to cash within one year, such as Checking and Savings Accounts, Inventory, and Accounts Receivable.  Fixed Assets include those items that are not expected to be converted to cash during one year of normal business operations, such as Loans Receivable, Machinery, Equipment, and Furniture and Fixtures.

Liability – A debt that your company owes.  Current Liabilities include Accounts Payable, Credit Card Liabilities, Sales Tax Payable, and Payroll Taxes Payable.  Long Term Liabilities include Loans Payable, Notes Payable, and Mortgage Payable.

Equity (or Capital) – The net worth of your company.  Equity comes from two sources: money invested by owners or shareholders, and profits and losses earned by your business.

Revenue– Money that comes into the company and earned from sales or services.

Cost of Goods Sold – The cost of goods and materials held in inventory and then sold.

Expense – Money that is being spent by the company on business-related items.

#2: Financial Statements

There are two Financial Statements that are important to every business.

Balance Sheet – A report that summarizes the financial position of your company.  It shows the value of your company’s assets, liabilities, and equity as of a specific day.  It is called a Balance Sheet, because the value of the Assets is always exactly equal to the combined value of the Liabilities and Equity.

Profit and Loss Report – A report that summarizes your income and expenses for the month,  so that you can tell whether you’re operating at a profit or a loss.  The report shows subtotals for each Income or Expense account that has been set up.  The last (bottom) line shows your Net Income or Net Loss for the month.

#3: Petty Cash

A signed and approved petty cash voucher is always needed in order to reimburse the Petty Cash Fund. When a check is written to reimburse the Petty Cash Fund, the account number(s) to use for the expense account distribution should be all the expense account numbers and amounts based on the petty cash receipts.   Ex.-“Office Expense” $49.16; “Auto Expenses” $14.75; “Meals”  $36.09.  These three individual expense accounts should be listed as the expense accounts, and not Petty Cash.

#4: NSF, Credit Card, and Misc. Fees

These fees are often overlooked and are not subtracted from the company’s checkbook balance.  When they aren’t subtracted, the checkbook balance is incorrect and you may run the risk of overdrawing your account by writing checks and not having sufficient funds to cover them.  These fees should be recorded immediately as deductions in the bank account register.

#5: Purchase of Machinery, Equipment, and Furniture

Those specific items that will be used by the business for over one year should be coded to the specific asset account entitled “Machinery,”  “Office Equipment,”  or “Furniture and Fixtures.”  They should not be coded to the expense accounts entitled “Office Expense,”  “Repairs and Maintenance,” or  “Shop Supplies” etc.  The bottom-line invoice amount (which includes sales tax and possible delivery charges) should be entered.

#6: Year-End Bonuses

Payroll taxes such as Federal Withholding, Social Security, and Medicare must be withheld from the gross amount of the bonuses.  If you’re in doubt as to what should be the gross amount for, let’s say, a $100 net bonus check, please call us before you write the check.  When we discover that you didn’t withhold payroll taxes from a bonus check, we’ll have to calculate the taxes for you.  You’ll then end up paying the IRS both the employer’s and employee’s portion of Social Security and Medicare tax, which can be avoided.

#7: Loan Payments

When you write a check for a loan or note, the amount paid must be distributed to two accounts—for the loan principal (a liability account) and for the loan interest (an expense account).  The breakdown for these two amounts should be listed on a separate amortization schedule.  If you don’t have this schedule, please call the lender or your CPA. The loan interest is deductible as an expense on your Profit & Loss statement but the loan principal amount is not deductible on your Profit & Loss statement.

 #8: Payroll Tax Payments

When coding the check written for the monthly Form 941 payroll tax deposit, either the account “Payroll Tax Deposits” or else “Payroll Tax Liability” should be used.  Both of these accounts are liability accounts. Payments should never be coded to “Payroll Tax Expense,” an expense account.  (For QuickBooks users: Use the “Pay Payroll Liabilities” feature).

 #9: Credit Card Payments

When coding the check written for the credit card payments, individual expense accounts should be used for the specific items charged – ex. Office Expense, Meals & Entertainment, Repairs & Maintenance, etc.  Personal items charged should always be coded to the account “Distributions” (S Corporation)  or  “Shareholder Loan” (C Corporation).

 #10: Sales Tax Payments

When coding the check for the payment of sales tax liability to the state, the account number for the account “Sales Tax Payable,” a liability account, should be used.  Do not code these payments to “Sales Tax Expense,” an expense account.  (For QuickBooks users: Use the “Pay Sales Tax” feature).

 #11: Checks Written For Personal Expenses

Since these expenses are not business expenses, business expense accounts should never be used.  Instead, these personal expenses should always be coded to the account “Distributions” (if your company is an S Corporation)  or “Shareholder Loan” (C Corporation).

#12: Retained Earnings

Never code any Checks or Deposits to the “Retained Earnings” account.  This account should never be used in a transaction, unless your CPA gives you end-of-the-year journal entries to make that will increase or decrease the “Retained Earnings” account.

 #13: Miscellaneous Expenses

Don’t code any check amounts to “Miscellaneous Expense.”  This is a “hot” item for potential IRS audit.  You may need to create a new account for the specific item.  If you’re unsure of where to code this item, please call your CPA.  It’s always better to be “too specific” than to be “too general.”

 #14: Consistency in Recording Expenses

Always be consistent when coding a specific expense amount that could be considered to be ambiguous.  For example, when you code a check to pay for auto insurance, be consistent in either using the “Auto Expense” account or else the “Insurance” account.  The choice is up to you, but it’s important that you continue to use whatever account that you choose for all other subsequent checks to pay your auto insurance.  Another example where you should use consistency is in recording fees for printing checks.  Be consistent in coding the check to either “Bank Charges” or else “Office Expense.”

 #15: Recording Deposits

When deposits are recorded, be sure to only code receipts from customers as Sales Income.  Any other amounts received should be coded to their specific individual accounts.  For example, amounts put into the business from shareholders should be coded to “Shareholder Loan” and not to “Sales.”  Amounts received as refunds, rebates, loan repayments, etc. should be coded specifically to their specific account.

#16: Recording NSF Checks

If a customer’s check bounces in the current accounting month, then void the customer’s check payment.  However, if the customer’s check bounces in an accounting period following the accounting period that it was recorded as a payment, these steps should be followed: (1) Record the bank charge for the NSF check in the checking account register, (2) Record the NSF check in the checking account register.  Enter the customer’s name as the Payee, the amount of the NSF check in the payment column, and either Accounts Receivable (accrual basis) as the Account to be debited.

 #17: Recording Bad Debts

If a customer’s account becomes uncollectible in the current accounting month and the original sale was recorded in a prior accounting month, a credit memo should be prepared for the specific customer to reverse the customer’s invoice(s).

#18: Non-Deductible Expenses

There are a few business expenses that aren’t deductible when preparing your corporation’s income tax return at the end of the year.  These expenses should be tracked separately and include: (1) Penalties paid to the IRS (not Interest, which is deductible). (2) Business gifts over $25 per person per year.  These non-deductible expenses need to coded to an expense account called “Non-Deductible Expenses” and should be clearly defined as to what they are for.

#19: Vendor Payments

All payments to vendors for services for $600 or more must be tracked because a 1099 form must be given to them in January of the following year.  Be sure to separate amounts paid for services rendered as opposed to amounts paid for reimbursements, materials, or supplies.

#20: Voiding Checks

All checks should be entered in the account register—whether they’ve been used or unused.  Be sure that the monthly numerical sequence of checks is accounted for by including all voided checks and checks held but not yet released.  These checks should be recorded with zero amounts until they are released.

If you’re still confused, don’t panic — call our office today at (727) 391-7373.  We’re only a phone call away.

TEN TIPS FOR RUNNING A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS

1. Determine the type of business entity in which you will conduct your business. The major choices include: sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company or LLC, C corporation, S corporation, and not-for-profit organization.

2. Apply for your Federal Tax Identification number with the IRS.

3. Establish a separate bank account for your business.

4. Set up a business accounting system for your business. There are several to choose from but we recommed QuickBooks Pro software to meet your small business accounting, payroll, and financial reporting needs.  As an Advanced Certified QuickBooks ProAdvisor, we can help set this program up for you, train you on how to use it, and help you troubleshoot problems.

5. Set up the forms that you’ll need to track transactions such as invoices, purchase orders, estimates, and statements. These can be set up in QuickBooks Pro.

6. Check to make sure that you have all of the business licenses that you need.

7. Purchase business insurance to protect your financial investment.

8. Market your business through referrals, a website, social media, Internet advertising, and networking events.

9. Make quarterly estimated tax payments to the IRS throughout the year, especially if your business is a sole proprietorship, partnership, or an S corporation.

10. Value your time. Spend as much time as possible working “on” the business and not “in” the business.  Delegate and outsource tasks to experts and to your staff.

Linda A. Stortz, CPA, P.A. is a local CPA firm in Seminole, FL that provides accounting and QuickBooks solutions, tax return preparation services, and business advisory services to small businesses in the Tampa Bay, FL area. The firm specializes in advising small business owners to run a successful business. To find out more about our business services, please call us today at (727) 391-7373.